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Актуальные проблемы
экономики и права

 

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DOI: 10.21202/1993-047X.12.2018.3.640-659

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Авторы :
1. Бэт Колган, доцент права Школы права
Калифорнийский университет



Штрафы, комиссионные сборы и конфискации


Цель: анализ назначения и исчисления штрафов, комиссионных сборов и конфискации исчисления штрафов, комиссионных сборов и конфискации по законодательству США.


Методы: диалектический подход к познанию социальных явлений, позволяющий проанализировать их в историческом развитии и функционировании в контексте совокупности объективных и субъективных факторов, который определил выбор следующих методов исследования: формально-логический, сравнительно-правовой, социологический.


Результаты: в последние годы были значительно повышены размеры штрафов, комиссионных сборов и конфискаций. Причиной стало стремление законодателей обеспечить финансирование системы уголовного правосудия без увеличения налогов. Однако вызывает опасение, что недостаточно продуманная система таких экономических санкций может иметь неблагоприятные политические последствия, среди которых искажение приоритетов, обострение финансовой уязвимости бедных слоев населения, повышение уровня преступности, переполнение тюрем и даже уменьшение денежных поступлений. Кроме того, наложение и сбор штрафов, комиссионных сборов и конфискаций во многих юрисдикциях подвергается сомнениям в отношении их конституционности, а значит, возникает риск дорогостоящего оспаривания
их в суде. В настоящей работе представлен обзор политики и конституциональных проблем, а также предлагается ряд конкретных решений по реформированию использования штрафов, комиссионных сборов и конфискаций.

Научная новизна: в статье впервые обоснована необходимость отмены «наказания за бедность» и других мер, негативно влияющих на способность выплачивать задолженность. В анализируемой статье предлагается создать систему для реальной оценки экономического эффекта штрафов, комиссионных сборов и конфискации, разработать альтернативные меры наказания, не связанные с лишением свободы, ограничить использование штрафов, комиссионных сборов и конфискаций в делах с участием несовершеннолетних, отстранить субъектов уголовного судопроизводства как от давления по поводу необходимости получения прибыли в бюджет, так и от выгод, проистекающих от такого рода экономических санкций.

 

Практическая значимость: основные положения и выводы статьи могут быть использованы в научной и педагогической деятельности при рассмотрении вопросов, связанных с назначением штрафов, комиссионных сборов и конфискаций.


Ключевые слова :

штраф; комиссионный сбор; конфискация активов; реформа уголовного правосудия; уязвимость бедных слов населения; оспаривание в суде


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Оригинальная публикация: https://ccjls.scholasticahq.com/article/2722-fnes-fees-and-forfeitures


Цитирование :

Колган Б. А. Штрафы, комиссионные сборы и конфискации // Актуальные проблемы экономики и права. 2018. Т. 12, № 3. С. 640–659. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21202/1993-047X.12.2018.3.640-659


Тип статьи : Научная статья

Дата поступления статьи :
23.07.2018

Дата принятия в печать :
29.08.2018

Дата онлайн размещения :
25.09.2018