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Актуальные проблемы
экономики и права

 

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DOI: 10.21202/1993-047X.14.2020.3.598-623

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Авторы :
1. Р. С. Моррис, доктор философии
Университет Вебера



Самоконтроль и криминальные наклонности: лонгитюдное исследование мер общественного воздействия, направленных на повышение самоконтроля


Цель: изучение понятия самоконтроля как основного фактора криминогенной потребности и преступного поведения.
 
Методы: диалектический подход к познанию социальных явлений с использованием основанных на нем общенаучных (анализ, синтез, индукция) и частно-научных (формально-юридический, системный, сравнительно-правовой, социологический) методов познания.
 
Результаты: в данном исследовании раскрывается сущность теоретической дискуссии между сторонниками психогенных и социогенных причин антиобщественного поведения. Автор сравнивает аргументы, приводимые в общей теории преступной деятельности для объяснения психогенных механизмов самоконтроля, с гипотезой о социогенных причинах, выдвигаемых теорией социального контроля. В работе самоконтроль и социальный контроль описаны как две стороны одного социально-психологического явления и доказано, что ключевые ценностные идентичности являются ядром самоконтроля. Данные многомерного временного ряда собирались в течение года в выборке из 173 детей, участвующих в программе наставничества на местном уровне. Большой интерес представляет проведенный анализ выборки детей с высоким риском антиобщественного поведения, включая группу детей, испытавших влияние тюремного заключения родителей.
 
Научная новизна: в работе обосновано, что уровень самоконтроля меняется различным образом у разных детей в течение года применения мер общественного воздействия, что ставит под сомнение гипотезу об относительной стабильности уровня самоконтроля, принятую в теории самоконтроля. У детей, не испытавших воздействия тюремного заключения родителей, уровень самоконтроля возрастал в течение года участия в программе наставничества, тогда как у детей с опытом такого воздействия он понижался. Результаты показывают, что программы мер общественного воздействия для детей из групп риска по признаку межпоколенческой преступности должны учитывать данные клинических моделей по борьбе с криминальными наклонностями.
 
Практическая значимость: основные положения и выводы статьи могут быть использованы в научной, педагогической и правоприменительной деятельности при рассмотрении вопросов, связанных с предупреждением и пресечением правонарушений.

Ключевые слова :
уголовное право; криминология; девиантология; самоконтроль; социальный контроль; криминальные наклонности; социальная психология; меры общественного воздействия; ценности

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Цитирование :
Моррис Р. С. Самоконтроль и криминальные наклонности: лонгитюдное исследование мер общественного воздействия, направленных на повышение самоконтроля // Актуальные проблемы экономики и права. 2020. Т. 14, № 3. С. 598–623. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21202/1993-047X.14.2020.3.598-623

Тип статьи : Научная статья

Дата поступления статьи :
18.06.2020

Дата принятия в печать :
15.08.2020

Дата онлайн размещения :
25.09.2020