по-русски

Actual Problems
of Economics and Law

 

16+

 

DOI: 10.21202/1993-047X.14.2020.2.326-351

скачать PDF

Authors :
1. Lee Ann Slocum,
University of Missouri

2. Claire Greene, entered the UMSL Criminology and Criminal Justice Ph.D. program in 2017
University of Missouri

3. Beth M. Huebner, Ph.D. from Michigan State University in Criminal Justice
University of Missouri

4. Richard Rosenfeld, President of the American Society of Criminology
University of Missouri



Changes in Enforcement of Low-Level and Felony Offenses Post-Ferguson: An Analysis of Arrests in St. Louis, Missouri


Objective: to study changes inenforcement of low-level offenses and felonies in the City of St. Louis, Missouri after the high-profile events in Ferguson.
 
Methods: dialectical approach to the cognition of social phenomena which uses the following research methods based on it: general scientific (analysis, synthesis, induction) and specific scientific methods (formal-legal, systemic, comparative-legal, sociological).
 
Results: as a result of several highly publicized incidents of police killing unarmed Black suspects, many contend that American police are in the midst of a crisis. Police have faced high levels of public scrutiny that some argue has stifled police activities and led to spikes in violent crime. This phenomenon – coined in the aftermath of the police killing of Michael Brown in Ferguson, Missouri – has become widely known as the Ferguson Effect. This study uses seven years of data and time series analysis to assess whether the events in Ferguson were associated with a reduction in arrests for felonies and low-level offenses in the nearby City of St. Louis, Missouri.
 
Scientific novelty: it is shown that there was an initial reduction in low-level arrests of Whites and Blacks in the wake of Ferguson. Enforcement of misdemeanors and ordinance violations then increased and returned to expected levels, but only for Blacks. Post-Ferguson, felony arrests initially dropped for Blacks, but not Whites, and then climbed for both groups. This work adds to the burgeoning literature on police responses in the wake of a high-profile shooting.
 
Practical significance: the main provisions and conclusions of the article can be used in scientific, educational and law enforcement activities when considering issues related to prevention and elimination crime.

Keywords :

Crime; Offense; Arrest trends; Misdemeanor; Ferguson Effect; de-policing; interrupted time series


Bibliography :
1. Shjarback J. A., Pyrooz D. C., Wolfe S. E., Decker, S. H. De-policing and crime in the wake of Ferguson: Racialized changes in the quantity and quality of policing among Missouri police departments, Journal of Criminal Justice, 2017, No. 50, pp. 42–52. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcrimjus.2017.04.003
2. Hayes C. St. Louis police chief blames “Ferguson Effect” for drop in self-initiated policing, 2015. Retrieved from: https://fox2now.com/2015/02/25/st-louis-police-chief-blames-ferguson-effect-for-drop-in-self-initiated-policing/
3. MacDonald H. The war on cops, New York, NY, Encounter Books, 2016.
4. Schmidt M. S., Apuzzo M. F.B.I. chief links scrutiny of police with rise in violent crime, The New York Times, 2015. Retrieved from: http://www.nytimes.com/2015/10/24/us/politics/fbi-chief-links-scrutiny-of-police-with-rise-in-violentcrime.html
5. After-action assessment of the police response to the August 2014 demonstrations in Ferguson, Missouri, Institute for Intergovernmental Research, 2015. Retrieved from Community Oriented Policing Services website: https://ric-zai-inc.com/Publications/cops-p317-pub.pdf
6. Investigation of the Ferguson Police Department, United States Department of Justice, 2015. Retrieved from: https://www.justice.gov/sites/default/files/opa/press-releases/attachments/2015/03/04/ferguson_police_department_report.pdf
7. Forward through Ferguson: A path toward racial equity, Ferguson Commission, 2015. Retrieved from: https://3680or2khmk3bzkp33juiea1-wpengine.netdna-ssl.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/09/101415_FergusonCommissionReport.pdf
8. Desmond M., Papachristos A. V., Kirk D. S. Police violence and citizen crime reporting in the black community, American Sociological Review, 2016, No. 81 (5), pp. 857–876. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0003122416663494
9. Rosenfeld R., Wallman J. Did de-policing cause the increase in homicide rates? Criminology and Public Policy, 2019, No. 18 (1), pp. 51–75. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/1745-9133.12414
10. Slocum L. A., Huebner B. M., Rosenfeld R. B., Greene C. Tracking enforcement rates in the City of St. Louis, 2002–2017, 2018. Retrieved from Research Network on Misdemeanor Justice website: http ://misdemeanorjustice.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/10/Tracking-Enforcement-Rates-in-St.-Louis_2002_2017.pdf
11. Deuchar R., Fallik S. W., Crichlow V. J. Despondent officer narratives and the ‘post-Ferguson’ effect: exploring law enforcement perspectives and strategies in a southern American state, Policing and Society, 2018, pp. 1–16. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/10439463.2018.1480020
12. Byers C. Crime up after Ferguson and more police needed, top St. Louis area chiefs say, 2014. Retrieved from: https://www.stltoday.com/news/local/crime-and-courts/crime-up-after-ferguson-and-more-police-needed-top-st/article_04d9f99f-9a9a-51be-a231-1707a57b50d6.html
13. President’s Task Force on 21st Century Policing, Final Report of the President’s Task Force on 21st Century Policing, 2015. Retrieved from Community Oriented Policing Services website: https://cops.usdoj.gov/pdf/taskforce/taskforce_finalreport.pdf
14. Chappell A. T., MacDonald J. M., Manz P. W. The organizational determinants of police arrest decisions, Crime & Delinquency, 2006, No. 52 (2), pp. 287–306. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0011128705278329
15. Klinger D. A. Demeanor or crime? Why “hostile” citizens are more likely to be arrested, Criminology, 1994, No. 32 (3), pp. 475–493. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-9125.1994.tb01162.x
16. Kochel T. R., Wilson D. B., Mastrofski S. D. Effect of suspect race on officers’ arrest decisions, Criminology, 2011, No. 49 (2), pp. 473–512. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-9125.2011.00230.x
17. Novak K. J., Frank J., Smith B. W., Engel R. S. Revisiting the decision to arrest: Comparing beat and community officers, Crime & Delinquency, 2002, No. 48 (1), pp. 70–98. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0011128702048001003
18. Smith D. A., Visher C. A. Street-level justice: Situational determinants of police arrest decisions, Social Problems, 1981, No. 29 (2), pp. 167–177. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/800422
19. Blau P. Exchange and power in social life, New York, NY, Routledge, 1964/2017.
20. Emerson R. M. Social exchange theory, Annual Review of Sociology, 1976, No. 2, pp. 335–362. DOI: 10.1146/annurev.so.02.080176.002003
21. Novak K. J., Smith B. W., Frank J. Strange bedfellows: Civil liability and aggressive policing. Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, 2003, No. 26 (2), pp. 352–368. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/13639510310475813
22. Nix J., Wolfe S. E. The impact of negative publicity on police self-legitimacy, Justice Quarterly, 2017, No. 34 (1), pp. 84–108. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/07418825.2015.1102954
23. Culhane S. E., Boman J. H., Schweitzer K. Public perceptions of the justifiability of police shootings: The role of body cameras in a pre/post Ferguson experiment, Police Quarterly, 2016, No. 19 (3), pp. 251–274. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1098611116651403
24. Matt D. The Ferguson effect: A cop’s-eye view, The New York Post, 2014. Retrieved from https://nypost.com/2014/10/14/the-ferguson-effect-a-cops-eye-view/
25. Bottoms A., Tankebe J. Beyond procedural justice: A dialogic approach to legitimacy in criminal justice, Journal of Criminal Law & Criminology, 2012, No. 102 (1), pp. 119–170.
26. Shi L. The limit of oversight in policing: Evidence from the 2001 Cincinnati riot, Journal of Public Economics, 2009, No. 93 (1–2), pp. 99–113. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/jjpubeco.2008.07.007
27. Stone C., Foglesong T., Cole C. M. Policing Los Angeles under a consent decree: The dynamics of change at the LAPD, 2009. Retrieved from Harvard Kennedy School Program in Criminal Justice Policy and Management website: http://www.hks.harvard.edu/criminaljustice/publi cations/Harvard_LAPD_Report.pdf
28. Chanin J., Sheats B. Depolicing as dissent shirking: Examining the effects of pattern or practice misconduct reform on police behavior, Criminal Justice Review, 2018, No. 43 (2), pp. 105–126. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0734016817704696
29. Kappeler V. E., Sluder R. D., Alpert G. P. Forces of deviance: The dark side of policing, 2nd ed., Long Grove, IL, Waveland Press, 1998.
30. Muir W. K., Jr. Police: Streetcorner politicians, Chicago, IL, University of Chicago Press, 1977.
31. Paoline E. A. III Shedding light on police culture: an examination of officers' occupational attitudes, Police Quarterly, 2004, No. 7 (2), pp. 205–236. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1098611103257074
32. Wolfe S. E., Nix J. The alleged “Ferguson Effect” and police willingness to engage in community partnership, Law and Human Behavior, 2016, No. 40 (1), pp. 1–10. DOI: http://dx. doi.org/10.1037/lhb0000164
33. Valencia N. Pistol-whipped detective says he didn’t shoot attacker because of headlines, 2015. Retrieved from: https://www.cnn.com/2015/08/13/us/alabama-birmingham-police-detective-pistol-whipped/index.html
34. Pyrooz D. C., Decker S. H., Wolfe S. E., Shjarback J. A. Was there a Ferguson Effect on crime rates in large U.S. cities? Journal of Criminal Justice, 2016, No. 46, pp. 1–8. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/jjcrimjus.2016.01.001
35. Rosenfeld R. Ferguson and police use of deadly force, Missouri Law Review, 2015, No. 80, p. 1077.
36. Behind the badge: Amid protests and calls for reform, how police view their jobs, key issues and recent fatal encounters between blacks and police, Pew Research Center, 2017. Retrieved from: https://www.pewsocialtrends.org/2017/01/11/behind-the-badge/
37. Torres J., Reling T., Hawdon J. Role conflict and the psychological impacts of the Post-Ferguson period on law enforcement motivation, cynicism, and apprehensiveness, Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology, 2018, No. 55 (4), pp. 358–374. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11896-018-9284-y
38. Oliver W. M. De-policing: Rhetoric or reality? Criminal Justice Policy Review, 2015, No. 28 (5), pp. 437–461. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0887403415586790
39. Nix J., Wolfe S. E., Campbell B. A. Command-level police officers’ perceptions of the “War on Cops” and de-policing, Justice Quarterly, 2018, No. 35 (1), pp. 33–54. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/07418825.2017.1338743
40. Worden R. E. Situational and attitudinal explanations of police behavior: A theoretical reappraisal and empirical assessment, Law and Society Review, 1989, No. 25 (4), pp. 667–711. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3053852
41. Morgan S. L., Pally J. A. Ferguson, Gray, and Davis: An analysis of recorded crime incidents and arrests in Baltimore City, March 2010 through December 2015, 2016. Retrieved from Johns Hopkins University website: https://socweb.soc.jhu.edu/faculty/morgan/papers/MorganPally2016.pdf
42. Lasley J. The impact of the Rodney King incident on citizen attitudes toward police, Policing and Society, 1994, No. 3 (4), p. 245. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/10439463.1994.9964673
43. Weitzer R. Incidents of police misconduct and public opinion, Journal of Criminal Justice, 2002, No. 50 (5), pp. 397–408. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0047-2352(02)00150-2
44. Weitzer R. Police race relations. In M. Reisig, R. Kane (Eds.) The Oxford handbook on police and policing, London, England, Oxford, 2014, pp. 339–361.
45. Brown M. K. Working the street: Police discretion and the dilemmas of reform, New York, NY, Russell Sage Foundation, 1981.
46. Community facts. United States Census Bureau, 2017. Retrieved from: https://factfinder.census.gov/faces/nav/jsf/pages/community_facts.xhtml?src=bkmk
47. Moore D. Violence erupts after grand jury declines to indict Darren Wilson, St. Louis Post Dispatch, 2014. Retrieved from: https://www.stltoday.com/news/local/crime-and-courts/print-story-violence-erupts-after-grand-jury-declines-to-indict/article_239f41f4-adcf-565c-9259-77a7fb2d67c3.html
48. Currier J., Patrick R. Stockley not guilty verdict not a surprise based on history, or for legal experts, St. Louis Post Dispatch, 2017. Retrieved from https://www. stltoday.com/news/local/crime-and-courts/stockley-not-guilty-verdict-not-a-surprise-based-onhistory/article_65eaeafa-7267-5e6e-93d7-409ad6f94915.html
49. Berg K. It’s been a month of St. Louis protests, and slowly change is happening, Belleville News-Democrat, 2017. Retrieved from: https://www.bnd.com/news/local/article178990641.html
50. Petrin K. M. Protest-related arrests over the weekend, by the numbers, St. Louis Magazine, 2017. Retrieved from: https://www.stlmag.com/news/a-look-at-the-numbers-in-jason-stockley-protest-arrests/
51. Rosenfeld R., Fornango R., Rengifo A. F. The impact of order-maintenance policing on New York City homicide and robbery rates: 1988–2001, Criminology, 2007, No. 45, pp. 355–384. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-9125.2007.00081.x
52. Bernal J. L., Cummins S., Gasparrini A. Interrupted time series regression for the evaluation of public health interventions: A tutorial, International Journal of Epidemiology, 2017, No. 46 (1), pp. 348–355. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyw098
53. Corsaro N. Interrupted time series analysis using STATA, Lecture Presented at the Justice Research Statistics Association (JRSA) Conference, Denver, Colorado, 2018.
54. StataCorp. Stata Statistical Software: Release 15. College Station, TX: StataCorp., 2017.
55. Rosenfeld R., Gaston S., Spivak H., Irazola S. Assessing and responding to the recent homicide rise in the United States, 2017. Retrieved from National Criminal Justice Reference Service website: https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/251067.pdf
56. Jones C. M., Logan J., Gladden R. M., Bohm M. K. Vital signs: Demographic and substance use trends among heroin users – United States, 2002–2013, Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 2015, No. 64, pp. 719–725.
57. Klinger D. A. Negotiating order in patrol work: An ecological theory of police response to deviance, Criminology, 1997, No. 35 (2), pp. 277–306. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-9125.1997.tb00877.x
58. Smith D. A. The neighborhood context of police behavior, Crime and Justice, 1986, No. 8, pp. 313–341. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1086/449126
59. Gillham P. F., Marx G. T. Changes in the policing of civil disorders since the Kerner Report: The police response to Ferguson, August 2014, and some implications for the twenty-first century, RSF: The Russell Sage Foundation Journal of the Social Sciences, 2018, No. 4, pp. 122–143. DOI: 10.7758/RSF.2018.4.6.06
60. Lofstrom M., Martin B., Goss J., Hayes J., Raphael S. New insights into California arrests trends, disparities, and county differences, 2018. Retrieved from Public Policy Institute of California website: https://www.ppic.org/wp-content/uploads/newinsights-into-california-arrests-trends-disparities-and-county-differences.pdf
61. Gau J. M., Brunson R. K. Procedural justice and order maintenance policing: A study of inner- city young men’s perceptions of police legitimacy, Justice Quarterly, 2010, No. 27, pp. 255–279. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/07418820902763889
62. Jacobs J. B. The eternal criminal record. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2015.
63. Kohler-Hausmann I. Misdemeanorland: Criminal courts and social control in an age of broken windows policing, Princeton, NJ, Princeton Press, 2018.
64. Natapoff A. Punishment without crime: How our massive misdemeanor system traps the innocent and makes America more unequal, New York, NY, Basic Books, 2018.
65. Young K., Petersilia J. Keeping track: Surveillance, control, and the expansion of the carceral state. Harvard Law Review, 2016, No. 129, pp. 1318–1360.
66. Leovy J. Ghettoside: A true story of murder in America, New York, NY, Penguin, 2015.
67. Natapoff A. Snitching: Criminal informants and the erosion of American justice, New York, NYU Press, 2009.
68. Tyler T. R., Huo Y. Trust in the law: Encouraging public cooperation with the police and courts, New York, NY, Russell Sage Foundation, 2002.
69. Carr P. J., Napolitano L., Keating J. We never call the cops and here is why: A qualitative examination of legal cynicism in three Philadelphia neighborhoods, Criminology, 2007, No. 45 (2), pp. 445–480. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-9125.2007.00084.x
70. Lum C., Nagin D. S. Reinventing American policing, Crime and Justice, 2017, No. 46 (1), pp. 339–393.
71. Owens E. Economic approach to “depolicing”, Criminology and Public Policy, 2019, No. 78 (1), pp. 77–80. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/1745-9133.12413
72. Rosenfeld R. Documenting and explaining the 2015 Homicide Rise: Research directions, 2016. Retrieved from National Criminal Justice Reference Service website: https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/249895.pdf
73. Slocum L. A., Greene C., Huebner B. M., Rosenfeld R. Changes in Enforcement of Low-Level and Felony Offenses Post-Ferguson: An Analysis of Arrests in St. Louis, Missouri, Criminology, Criminal Justice, Law & Society, 2019, Vol. 20, No. 2, pp. 25–45.

 


Citation :
Slocum L. A., Greene C., Huebner B. M., Rosenfeld R. Changes in Enforcement of Low-Level and Felony Offenses Post-Ferguson: An Analysis of Arrests in St. Louis, Missouri, Actual Problems of Economics and Law, 2020, Vol. 14, No. 2, pp. 326–351. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21202/1993-047X.14.2020.2.326-351

Type of article : The scientific article

Date of receipt of the article :
02.03.2020

Date of adoption of the print :
30.04.2020

Date of online accommodation :
25.06.2020