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Актуальные проблемы
экономики и права

 

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DOI: 10.21202/1993-047X.12.2018.3.660-676

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Авторы :
1. Габриэль Джек Чин, младший профессор права
Калифорнийский университет, Школа права Дэвиса, кафедра Edward L. Barrett Jr. Chair and Martin Luther King



Побочные последствия осуждения в уголовном порядке


Цель: анализ побочных последствий осуждения в уголовном праве (на примере Соединенных Штатов Америки).


Методы: диалектический подход к познанию социальных явлений, позволяющий проанализировать их в историческом развитии и функционировании в контексте совокупности объективных и субъективных факторов, который определил выбор следующих методов исследования: формально-логический, сравнительно-правовой и социологический.


Результаты: для многих людей важнейшим последствием уголовного приговора является не само заключение под стражу, а получение статуса осужденного и наступление побочных последствий. Среди таких последствий – утрата гражданских прав, государственных льгот, недоступность ряда возможностей трудоустройства, лицензий и разрешений. Во всех пятидесяти штатах США побочные последствия, зачастую действующие всю оставшуюся жизнь, налагаются на основании уголовного приговора любой юрисдикции. Побочные последствия настолько многочисленны и разнообразны, информация о них настолько разбросана, что их можно назвать неисчислимыми. В последние годы Американский институт права, Американская ассоциация юристов и Комиссия по унификации законодательства предложили ряд реформ. Побочные последствия должны: 1) быть обобщены и опубликованы, так чтобы адвокаты, юристы, судьи и законодатели имели о них ясное представление; 2) быть известны на этапе консультирования, переговоров о заключении сделки о признании вины, вынесения приговора и иных аспектов уголовного процесса; 3) подлежать смягчению, так чтобы гражданин, ведущий законопослушный образ жизни, мог восстановить свой равноправный статус; 4) ограничиваться случаями, которые достоверно повышают общественную безопасность.


Научная новизна: в работе впервые обоснована необходимость рационализировать и реформировать побочные последствия приговоров. Побочные последствия должны быть интегрированы в систему уголовного правосудия в целом, а также в процесс разбирательства по каждому отдельному делу. Предлагается создать Общенациональный сборник побочных последствий приговоров, с тем чтобы каждый гражданин смог ознакомиться с правовыми последствиями приговора в каждой отдельной юрисдикции. В связи с этим адвокатам рекомендуется информировать клиентов о побочных последствиях при оказании юридической помощи, судьи должны информировать подсудимых о возможных побочных последствиях при подаче заявления о признании вины и при вынесении приговора, прокуроры должны учитывать побочные последствия при обсуждении признания вины и возможного приговора. Доказана необходимость разработки Конгрессом и законодательными органами штатов механизма смягчения побочных последствий с целью трудоустройства и реабилитации осужденного.


Практическая значимость: основные положения и выводы статьи могут быть использованы в научной и педагогической деятельности при рассмотрении вопросов, связанных с побочными последствиями осуждения в уголовном праве.


Ключевые слова :

побочные последствия осуждения в уголовном порядке; реформа уголовного законодательства; судебный приговор; заключение под стражу; статус осужденного


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Оригинальная публикация: https://ccjls.scholasticahq.com/article/2721-collateral-consequences-of-criminal-conviction


Цитирование :

Чин Г. Дж. Побочные последствия осуждения в уголовном порядке // Актуальные проблемы экономики и права. 2018. Т. 12, № 3. С. 660–676. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21202/1993-047X.12.2018.3.660-676


Тип статьи : Научная статья

Дата поступления статьи :
23.06.2018

Дата принятия в печать :
04.09.2018

Дата онлайн размещения :
25.09.2018