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Актуальные проблемы
экономики и права

 

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DOI: 10.21202/1993-047X.12.2018.2.334-384

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Авторы :
1. Эрик А. Познер, почетный профессор Kirkland & Ellis
Школа права Чикагского университета, США

2. Э. Глен Вейл, старший научный сотрудник; внештатный старший научный сотрудник экономического факультета и Школы права
Исследовательский центр Microsoft, Новая Англия; Йельский университет, США



Собственность – всего лишь другое название монополии


Цель: рассмотрение возможности появления налога на собственность, который бы способствовал эффективному перераспределению ресурсов и при этом не устранял стремления собственников к инвестированию.


Методы: диалектический подход к познанию социальных явлений, позволяющий проанализировать их в историческом развитии и функционировании в контексте совокупности объективных и субъективных факторов, который определил выбор следующих методов исследования: формально-логический, сравнительно-правовой, социологический.


Результаты: существующая система частной собственности противоречит принципу эффективности распределения ресурсов, поскольку предоставляет владельцам возможность удерживать завышенные цены. В работе предлагается разрешить это противоречие с помощью налога на собственность, исчисляемого на основе самооценки стоимости собственности ее владельцем, производимой с известной периодичностью, при условии, что владелец должен продать данную собственность любой третьей стороне, готовой заплатить указанную стоимость. Таким образом, ставка налога будет представлять собой компромисс между выгодами от эффективного распределения ресурсов и убытками от эффективности инвестиций и для большинства активов будет колебаться между 5 и 10 % в год. В статье данная система налогообложения подробно рассматривается с экономической и юридической точек зрения.


Научная новизна: состоит в предложении парадигмы принципиально новой экономики, которая опирается не на институт частной собственности, а на институт частичной собственности с введением налога на собственность по Харбергеру.

 

Практическая значимость: рассмотрены практические примеры реализации концепции налога на собственность по Харбергеру для разных типов и объектов собственности. Показано, что глобальные тренды на цифровизацию экономики, в частности Интернет вещей (Internet of Things), системы распределенных реестров, электронные аукционы и геопозиционирование объектов собственности, являются ключевыми технологиями для практической реализации концепции налога на собственность по Харбергеру.


Ключевые слова :

собственность; институт частной собственности; налог на собственность; принцип эффективного перераспределения ресурсов; монополия; сбор налогов по системе Харбергера


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Оригинальная публикация: https://academic.oup.com/jla/article/9/1/51/3572441


Цитирование :

Познер Э. А., Вейл Э. Г. Собственность – всего лишь другое название монополии // Актуальные проблемы экономики и права. 2018. Т. 12, № 2. С. 334–384. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21202/1993-047X.12.2018.2.334-384


Тип статьи : Научная статья

Дата поступления статьи :
15.03.2018

Дата принятия в печать :
30.05.2018

Дата онлайн размещения :
25.06.2018