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DOI: 10.21202/1993-047X.15.2021.2.332-359

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Авторы :
1. Джейсон Р. Сильва, ассистент преподавателя кафедры социологии и уголовного судопроизводства
Университет Уильяма Патерсона



Формирование отношения к массовым расстрелам гражданского населения в новостных средствах массовой информации: доступность оружия, психические нарушения, насилие для развлечения, терроризм


Цель: изучение отношения граждан США к массовым расстрелам мирного населения посредством рассмотрения материалов, опубликованных в новостных средствах массовой информации.
 
Методы: диалектический подход к познанию социальных явлений, позволяющий проанализировать их в историческом развитии и функционировании в контексте совокупности объективных и субъективных факторов, который определил выбор следующих методов исследования: формально-логический, сравнительно-правовой и социологический.
 
Результаты: в работе проведен анализ искажений при освещении прессой массовых расстрелов гражданского населения в США с 2000 по 2016 г. Автор анализирует использование четырех точек зрения при освещении материалов в газете «Нью-Йорк Таймс», а именно: доступности оружия, психических нарушений, насилия для развлечения, терроризма. Показано, как эти четыре точки зрения используются для подачи материалов о массовых расстрелах, как они изменялись со временем, как характеристики преступления влияют на выбор точки зрения, а также как новостные средства массовой информации могут искажать представление об описываемом явлении.
 
Научная новизна: результаты исследования показывают, что освещение с точки зрения доступности оружия использовалось чаще всего и использование этого объяснения сильнее всего возросло со временем. Объяснение преступления наличием психического нарушения использовалось немного чаще, чем ссылкой на терроризм, но последнее сильнее увеличилось со временем. Реже всего преступления объяснялись мотивами развлечения. По результатам сравнительного анализа самыми значимыми предикторами при выборе точки зрения стали: арабское происхождение преступников (выбор точки зрения «терроризм»), мотивация на основе джихадизма («терроризм»), наличие психических нарушений («психическое нарушение»), стрельба в школе («доступность оружия», «психическое нарушение», «насилие для развлечения») и выбор государственных деятелей в качестве цели («доступность оружия», «терроризм»). В статье обсуждаются искажения при подаче материалов в новостных СМИ и их последствия для средств массовой информации, широкой публики и научных исследований.
 
Практическая значимость: основные положения и выводы статьи могут быть использованы в научной, педагогической и правоприменительной деятельности при рассмотрении вопросов, связанных с формированием отношения к массовым расстрелам гражданского населения в средствах массовой информации.

Ключевые слова :
массовые расстрелы гражданского населения; подача материалов в новостных СМИ; искажения в СМИ; доступность оружия; психические нарушения; насилие для развлечения; терроризм

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Цитирование :
Сильва Дж. Р. Формирование отношения к массовым расстрелам гражданского населения в новостных средствах массовой информации: доступность оружия, психические нарушения, насилие для развлечения, терроризм // Актуальные проблемы экономики и права. 2021. Т. 15, № 2. С. 332–359. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21202/1993-047X.15.2021.2.332-359

Тип статьи : Научная статья

Дата поступления статьи :
03.02.2021

Дата принятия в печать :
12.03.2021

Дата онлайн размещения :
25.06.2021